around 3000 BC Chr. Mundigak culture. After excavations in the city of Mundigak, near Kandahars
2000 – 1500 BC Chr. Migration of Indo-Germanic steppe peoples from the north to Afghanistan
around 700 – 559 BC Chr. Western Afghanistan comes under the rule of the Medes
around 630 BC Chr. Zarathustra, founder of religion, born in Balkh (Bactria)
around 550-480 BC Chr. Siddhata Gautama, Buddha, “The Enlightened One”
559-330 BC Chr. Achaemenids
336 – 323 BC Chr. Alexander the Great
329 BC Chr. Conquest of Eastern Iran with the provincial capital Herat
312-64 BC Chr. Seleucid dynasty, successor to Alexander the Great
around 250 BC Chr. Establishment of an independent kingdom of Bactria
268-233 BC Chr. Ashoka, most important ruler of the Indian Maurya dynasty
183 BC Demetrius, Bactrian king, conquers Panschab and southern Afghanistan, Buddhism becomes the state religion
45 AD Kadphises, founder of the Kushan dynasty
at 143 – 172 Kanishka the Great. Buddhism reaches its peak in Afghanistan. Gandahara art
226-642 Sassanids
242-272 Sassanid King, Shapur I the Great, incorporated most of Afghanistan into the Persian Empire
400-642 Hephtalites (White Huns)
460 Invasion of Afghanistan by the White Huns
565 defeated by the Turks
570 Mohammad was born in Mecca
632-750 Arab grandmaids
from 642 Islamization by Arabs
663 Capture of Baktra (Balch by the Arabs)
754-1258 Arab Abbasids
867-903 Saffarids
874-999 Samanids. Isail Samani, founder of the Samanid dynasty, rule Persia, Choresan, Transoxania and large parts of Afghanistan
999-1183 Ghaznavid dynasty
999-1030 Mahmud the Great, born 969
1037-1307 Seljuks rule Persia, Mesopotamia, Syria and Asia Minor
1151-1208 Ghorids
1221 Incursion of Genghis Khan into Afghanistan. Destruction of Herat, Balch, Bamiyan, Ghazni, Laschkari-i-Bazar, Qala-i-Bost and Merw
1369-1526 Timurlan and his successors, the Timurids
1501-1721 Persian Empire of the Safavids
1625 Kandahar is occupied by the Safavids
1526-1709 Indian Mughals
1505 Babur, founder of the Mughal dynasty, conquers Kabul
1709-1729 Pashtun kingdom under Mir Wais Hotaki
1747-1773 Ahmed Shah Durrani, proclaims independent Afghanistan
1836-1863 Dost Mohammad Khan. With interruptions Emir of Afghanistan 1838-1842 First Anglo-Afghan War
1839 Shah Schuja is installed as emir by the British. Dost Mohammad Khan regains power
1855 British government recognizes Dost Mohammad Khan as emir of Afghanistan
1863-1869 Scher Ali, son of Dost Mohammad Khan, Emir of Afghanistan Second Anglo-Afghan War
1880-1901 Abd-ar-Rahman, Emir of Afghanistan
1887 and 1893 Territory ceded to Russia in the north and England in the southeast
1901-1919 Habib Ullah, son of Abd-ar-Rahman, Emir of Afghanistan
1919 Third Anglo-Afghan War
1919-1929 Aman Ullah, son of Habib Ullah, Emir of Afghanistan 1921 English assurance of foreign policy independence. Since 1926 the designation king
1929 Habib Ullah, called Batscha-i-Saqao (son of the water carrier), usurped the throne for nine months
1929-1933 King Nadir Shah
1933-1973 King Zaher Shah, son of Nadir Shah
1964 New constitution, Afghanistan, Afghanistan becomes a constitutional monarchy
1973 Mohammad Daud proclaims Afghanistan a republic and appoints himself president
1978 Fall of M. Daud. Proclamation of the People’s Republic of Afghanistan President Nur Mohammad Taraki
September 16, 1979 Violent death of Taraki. Deputy President Hafiz Ullah Amin takes power
December 26, 1979 Soviet troops march into Afghanistan President Amin is eliminated by the Russians. Babrak Karmal as the new president
1985 Dr. Najibullah becomes president
1989 Withdrawal of the Soviet Army from Afghanistan
1992 “Mujahedin” conquer Kabul and proclaim Islamic State (Mujadidi new president)
1992 B. Rabbani replaces Mujadidi as president
1993 Emergence of the Taliban in Kandahar
1996 Taliban conquer Kabul
1981-1983 Expansion of the resistance struggle to all parts of the country including the cities; 80% of the land under the control of the Mujahideen (“freedom fighters”)
  Mass exodus of Afghans to Pakistan and Iran. Repeated condemnation of the Soviet invasion by UN General Assembly and “Islamic Summit Conferences”
1984 (April) Largest Soviet offensive in the country against the resistance, which holds its own despite setbacks
1986 (4.5.) Karmal is replaced as party leader by Mohammed Najibullah; from 11/30/1987 also head of state
1988 (15.4) Treaty of Geneva; Soviet troops begin to withdraw
1989 (15.2) Last Soviet soldier to leave Afghanistan
1990 (June) Constitutional reform under Najibullah
1992 (April) Guerrillas capture Khost
1992 (16.4) Resignation of Najibullah, from April 24th Sibghatullah Mojadidi transitional president; Civil war in Kabul and the surrounding area, new influx of refugees to Pakistan
(30.12.) 1. The Great Shura elects the Tajik Burhanuddin Rabbani as president for a period of two years. He was already since June 28th. provisionally in office
1993 (7.3.) Islamabad Peace Agreement between ten Mujahideen groups Gulbuddin Hekmatyar sworn in as Prime Minister
1994 Emergence of the Taliban in Kandahar
1994 (December 28) Burhanuddin Rabbani indefinitely extends his term of office
1996 (May 24) Peace Agreement between B. Rabbani and G. Hekmatyar
6/26/1996 Hekmatyar arrives in Kabul on and is sworn in again as head of government
27.9. 1996 The radical Muslim Taliban, which already controls large parts of Afghanistan, is taking Kabul
November 1996 The German UN envoy Norbert Holl is holding talks with all groups involved in the civil war that has been raging for 17 years
October 1997 The Taliban proclaim the “Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan”
March 2001 Taliban destroy Bamyan’s Budha statues
Sept 2001 The leader of the Northern Alliance, Massoud, is murdered
09/11/2001 Attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon
October 7, 2001 US-led military intervention begins in Afghanistan
17 Nov 2001 The Northern Alliance moves into Kabul despite a prior waiver of the US
11/27/2001 to 12/5/2001 Bonn Afghanistan talks under the auspices of the UNO only four groups are invited (Rome, Cyprus, Peshawar group and Northern Alliance)
Dec 2001 Dispatch of 5,000 ISAF soldiers (including 2,000 Germans)
12/22/2001 The new interim administration Hamed Karzai officially takes over the power to take the oath
April 2002 Return of the monarch Zahir Shah from more than 30 years of exile in Rome
June 2002 Confirmation of Karzai as president of the Afghan interim government by the Loya Jirga
4.01.2004 Afghanistan is getting a new constitution
October 9, 2004 Presidential election
September 18, 2005 Parliamentary elections
Feb 2006 London Conference Approves $ 10.5 Billion in Additional Aid for Afghanistan “Afghanistan Compact”
Oct 2006 NATO takes responsibility for security throughout Afghanistan
Aug 2008 A US bombing raid in Farah province kills 89 civilians
March 2009 US President Obama announces a new strategy for Afghanistan (and Pakistan) and further troop reinforcements
20 Aug 09 Presidential and provincial council elections
Sept 2009 Air attack in Kunduz ordered by the Bundeswehr: dozens of civilian victims
2010 Parliamentary elections The Federal Government wants to begin the gradual withdrawal of Bundeswehr soldiers from Afghanistan in 2011 and, if possible, bring all soldiers home by 2014
June 2013  The Afghan army is now responsible for the country’s security. ISAF soldiers only have a supporting role.
2013 Bundeswehr withdraws from Kunduz
2014 Former Finance Minister Ashraf Ghani is sworn in as the new President

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